Conservation, Reclamation & Native Seed

Native plants are those that naturally occur in a given habitat. A species that is native to one area of the world may not be native to another. However, native plants are generally well adapted to their particular environment and are more likely to thrive there. Once established, native plants provide an ecologically appropriate and environmentally sound habitat.

At Landmark Turf & Native Seed, we offer a complete and extensive selection of native seed and introduced seed species and varieties for reclamation, erosion control, mining, wetland, riparian, forestry and wildlife habitat. We custom blend and mix to meet Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) seed, utility right-of-way and mining reclamation seed specifications. View our Conservation, Reclamation and Native seed varieties below or contact us for more information.

Purple Prairie Clover

Purple prairie clover, Petalostemon purpurea, is a perennial legume with pinnately compound leaves and rose to dark purple flowers in dense spikes. It has a stout taproot and is palatable to wildlife. The flowers bloom from July to early August. Purple prairie clover can be found across Indiana to Saskatchewan and south to Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico in rocky plains and hillsides, open wooded areas, stream valleys, and roadsides. It does best in full sun and dry to mesic well-drained soils.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 293,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-8

Bloom Period: Summer/Fall; Mature Height: 12-36"

Foxtail Barley

Foxtail barley, Hordeum jubatum, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass without rhizomes, growing 12-24 inches tall. Foxtail barley grows most abundant on poorly-drained, wet soils where textures vary from sandy loams to silty clay loams. It is tolerant of salts and alkali areas but can be prone to become weedy. It is highly palatable to cattle and wildlife and moderately palatable to sheep. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 136,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-9

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Rocky Mountain Fescue

Rocky Mountain fescue, Festuca saximontana, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass. It is cold and drought tolerant and persists on fertile, silty and clayey soils growing in well-drained meadows and sub-humid grassland sites. Rocky Mountain fescue may be used on rangeland, erosion control, or mine sites. It is common at higher, subalpine and alpine elevations in the Rocky Mountains and northwestern United States. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,300,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1.5-3

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Little Bighorn American Sheep Fescue

Less dense and generally better suited for low naturalized sites, the Little Bighorn American sheep fescue is different than its turf-type cousins, many of which can have parentage tracked to European turf breeding programs. Little Bighorn, Festuca ovina, is a less dense bunch-type grass suitable for naturalized sites, often found in golf course outer roughs and other meadow type areas. Little Bighorn will not form a dense, sod-forming turf but provides compact plants with upright foliage and red-purple seed heads throughout the sward. The foliage has a slight bluish cast during the spring growth period. Excellent as a nurse with native grasses and wildflowers, Little Bighorn is at home on the golf course, in parks, and other naturalized areas where maintenance and traffic will be minimal.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 550,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/1,000 sq. ft): 0.5-4

Desert Wheatgrass

Desert wheatgrass, Agropyron desertorum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 1 to 3 feet tall. This species is later maturing and more productive than crested wheatgrass. It is also more drought tolerant than crested or fairway type crested wheatgrass but less drought tolerant than Siberian type wheatgrass. It can be found in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Nordan is a common variety.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,200; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Bloom Period: Summer; Mature Height: 12-36"

Sherman Big Bluegrass

Sherman Big bluegrass, Poa ampla, is a long-lived, cool-season bunchgrass that was originally selected from a native range site in Sherman County, Oregon. It is a low-input species that requires as little as 11” of annual rainfall. Sherman Big blue is valuable in soil stabilization, forage-rangeland seedings and dryland hay production, mine reclamation, and provides critical upland wildlife food and habitat.  

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 920,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Alkaligrass

Alkaligrass, Puccinellia distans, is a perennial, cool-season grass native to the western North American prairies. It has many applications in turf, reclamation, and native and naturalized sites where saline conditions occur. Alkaligrass is a low maintenance grass with a vigorous root system and fine-textured leaves. It is a valuable erosion control species for its saline tolerance and ability to withstand flooding. Alkaligrass is typically utilized in areas of saline water conditions and road salt as it grows on a wide range of soils and can tolerate high amounts of salinity. Alkaligrass is a native bunch grass standing 12 to 18 inches tall. Fults and Nuttal are common varieties of alkaligrass. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,000,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-4

Mature Height: 12-18"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Alpine Bluegrass

Alpine bluegrass, Poa alpina, is a perennial, cold-tolerant, native bunchgrass that grows 8 to 24 inches tall. It grows well in cooler alpine, sub-alpine zones, and mountain meadows. Alpine bluegrass prefers open sites and well-drained soil and is typically utilized for erosion control, reclamation, and restoration. It occurs in Colorado, Utah, Washington and Oregon.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,680,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1-2

Mature Height: 8-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Altai Wildrye

Altai wildrye, Leymus angustus, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 24 to 48 inches tall. It develops short rhizomes and is generally drought tolerant and winter hardy. It has adapted to the loam and clay-loam soils of the prairies and is often used in pasture grass. Although the growth of Altai wildrye is coarse, cattle and sheep find it very palatable. It is found in the Intermountain region and northern Great Plains of the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 58,300; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-20

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Arizona Fescue

Arizona fescue, Festuca arizonica, is a long-lived, perennial, cool-season, native grass growing 12 to 36 inches tall. This densely tufted bunch grass is found on shallow clay loam to loam and sandy to gravelly soils. Arizona fescue has a heavy root system making it an excellent soil binder. This variety is suited for revegetating and stabilizing disturbed soils, roads, ski slopes and construction in the mountains. Arizona fescue is moderately palatable so it can be used for forage and range land restoration. It is native to the Ponderosa Pine zone from Colorado south to West Texas, Mexico, and Nevada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 500,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Beardless Bluebunch Wheatgrass

Beardless bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata ssp. inermis, is a perennial, cool-season, native, erect bunchgrass. It grows 12 to 30 inches tall, often with short rhizomes. It has a wide spectrum of adaptations. Beardless bluebunch wheatgrass is found on all aspects of mountain slopes, benches, basins, alluvial fans, and in valley bottoms. Adapted to a wide variety of soils, it is found mostly in well-drained, medium to coarse textured soils which vary in depth from shallow to very deep.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-30"; Growth Habit: Sod

Beardless Wildrye

Beardless wildrye, Leymus triticoides, is a perennial, cool-season, native sod-forming grass. It is typically at least 20 inches tall with strong rhizomes. This grass grows on mostly heavy soils in riparian areas, bottomlands, valleys, foothills, mountain flats, and meadows from coastal marshes to high elevations where wet, saline, and alkaline soils are present. Beardless wildrye is used for soil stabilization on channel, stream, and river slopes and restoration of roadside, riparian, and rangeland areas. It is also a good source of forage. Shoshone is a common variety of beardless wildrye. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 170,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7

Mature Height: 10-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Blue Wildrye

Blue wildrye, Elymus glaucus, is a large perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass growing up to 5 feet in height. It is similar in stature and growth habit to slender wheatgrass. Blue wildrye is good for streambank restoration, meadow and swale seeding. It is also excellent for reseeding burned or disturbed areas in oak woodland or forest. Blue wildrye is found from California to Alaska and into the Great Plains and northern Mexico.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 135,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12

Mature Height: 20-60"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Bluebunch Wheatgrass

Bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata ssp. spicata, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass that grows 18 to 48 inches tall with strong rhizomes. It is very drought resistant, persistent, and adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils. This nutritious grass is used for hay production but is better suited and more palatable when used for grazing. Bluebunch wheatgrass is most common to the northern Great Plains and the Intermountain regions of the western United States. Common varieties of bluebunch wheatgrass include Anatone Germplasm, Columbia, Goldar, and Secar. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 125,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 18-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Bottlebrush Squirreltail

Bottlebrush Squirreltail, Elymus elymoides, is a perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing between 4 and 25 inches tall. It is sometimes referred to as “bristlegrass” and is considered to be one of the most fire-resistant native bunch grasses. It is fair to desirable forage for cattle, horses and sheep. Bottlebrush squirreltail is commonly found throughout the Rocky Mountain region and western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 190,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-12

Mature Height: 4-25"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Canada Bluegrass

Canada bluegrass, Poa compressa, is a low-growing and palatable cool-season bluegrass that spreads through underground rhizomes. It is adaptable to poor soil and commonly used for turf, roadside erosion, and reclamation of disturbed areas such as gravel pits, cut roads, and mines.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,500,000; Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Canada Wildrye

Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass that grows to 48 inches tall. It is moderately drought tolerant and winter-hardy and has good tolerance to salinity and shade. Canada wildrye is found on sandy shores and dunes, wooded areas especially along trails, rivers and streams, and other disturbed sites. Canada wildrye is found throughout the northeast, north, and western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 114,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 11-15

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Canby Bluegrass

Canby bluegrass, Poa canbyi, is a perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass that grows 8 to 16 inches tall. Canby Bluegrass is vigorous, long-leaved, late maturing, and more productive than other bluegrasses. It is used as low maintenance turf and forest roads in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Canby bluegrass is common to the western United States, the Rocky Mountain region, and the northern Great Plains region.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 925,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 8-16"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Creeping Meadow Foxtail

Creeping meadow foxtail, Alopecurus arundinaceus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming, grass that grows 12 to 24 inches tall. It is extremely winter-hardy and recovers quickly from grazing due to its numerous aggressive underground rhizomes. Creeping meadow foxtail is palatable to all classes of livestock. It is most commonly utilized throughout the Pacific Northwest, Intermountain West, Northern Great Plain States, and Western Canada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 785,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Crested Wheatgrass (Fairway Type)

Crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch type reaching 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought-tolerant and winter-hardy grass has a deep-rooted system making it an excellent soil binder. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils. Crested wheatgrass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. The Fairway type was first recognized in 1950 as being different than other crested types. Fairway is shorter, denser, finer-stemmed, and less productive than desert wheatgrass at lower elevations and may exceed desert wheatgrass production at higher elevations. Newer varieties such as Ephraim and Roadcrest exhibit strong rhizome activity.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Dahurian Wildrye

Dahurian wildrye, Elymus dahuricus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 60 inches tall. Dahurian wildrye has a deep root system allowing good drought tolerance preferring well drained fertile soils. It germinates quickly and regrows aggressively after cutting and grazing, thus providing excellent palatable forage and making it common in pasture mixes. Dahurian wildrye is located in the northeast, Midwest and northwestern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Mature Height: 12-60"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Fowl Bluegrass

Fowl bluegrass, Poa palustris, is a stoloniferous, weakly rhizomatous perennial grass. It grows in moist, open meadows and streambanks and is highly palatable. It prefers fertile sandy to clayey alluvial soils and thrives in moist, cool, temperate climates with excellent winter hardiness. Fowl bluegrass can be used for lawns and landscaping as well. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,900,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1-3

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: bunch/sod

Great Basin Wildrye

Great Basin wildrye, Leymus cinereus, is a large, long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass growing an average of 3 to 6 feet tall. Due to its extensive, coarse, fibrous root system, Great Basin wildrye adapts well to broad climates, stabilizes disturbed soils, and is palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. It can be distinguished by its bluish-green color. Great Basin wildrye can be used for restoration, especially for areas with high alkaline, and can be grazed in the late fall or early winter. It is native to the Great Plains and the Intermountain regions of the western United States. Magnar and Trailhead are common varieties of Great Basin wildrye. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 130,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7

Mature Height: 20-40"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Green Needlegrass

Green needlegrass, Nassella viridula, is a bright green perennial with a long grazing season. It is a cool-season, native bunchgrass growing between 18 to 36 inches tall. It grows on medium to fine-textured soils and naturally occurs on bottomlands, flat benches, and overflow areas along streams. Green needlegrass is a predominant, native grass throughout the Northern Plains states and is found as far south as Arizona.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 170,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-8

Mature Height: 18-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Hard Fescue

Hard fescue, Festuca brevipila, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season grass growing 4 to 6 inches high. This introduced, densely-tufted bunchgrass is related to Chewings fescue and is a form of Sheep fescue although it has broader, longer, coarser, more lax leaves than Sheep fescue but is less drought tolerant. It has a dense, fibrous root system and is drought tolerant. Its abundant, dense leaves and low crowns make it suitable for erosion control. Hard fescue is primarily used for soil protection on road sides, ditchbanks, airports, skid trails in teh higher rainfall zones, and as a cover crop in irrigated orchards and windbreaks.  

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 600,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 4-6"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass

Larger and more robust than its two parents, Hycrest crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum x Agropyron desertorum, provides improved forage quality, yield, seedling vigor, establishment, and root development. This hybrid crested wheatgrass is well adapted to sagebrush and juniper sites. Hycrest and Hycrest II are common varieties. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 335,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-10

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Idaho Fescue

Idaho fescue, Festuca idahoensis, is a perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing 12 to 36 inches tall. Although it will grow anywhere, it prefers silt loam or sandy loam soils. Idaho Fescue has excellent cold tolerance, moderate drought tolerance, moderate shade tolerance, and has adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils. It is one of the most common and widely distributed grasses in the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 450,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-6

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Indian Ricegrass

Indian Ricegrass, Achnatherum hymenoides, is a short to medium lived perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing 8 to 30 inches tall. It is very winter hardy, has a broad climatic adaptation, and prefers dry and primarily loamy-sandy-gravelly sites. Indian ricegrass is highly palatable to livestock and wildlife. One of its greatest assets is stabilizing sites susceptible to wind erosion. Indian Ricegrass is generally found in the plains, foothills, mountains, and intermountain basins of the Western United States. Common types of Indian ricegrass include Nezpar, Rimrock, and Paloma. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 160,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-6

Mature Height: 8-30"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Intermediate Wheatgrass

Intermediate wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. intermedia, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep-feeding root system, preferring well-drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils. Rush and Oahe are common intermediate wheatgrass varieties used for forage and reclamation purposes.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Sod

Meadow Barley

Meadow barley, Hordeum brachyantherum, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass that grows 12 to 14 incehs tall. It establishes rapidly and is a good cover crop in orchards and vineyards. Meadow barley tolerates drought as well as infertile, alkaline, and compacted soil. Meadow barley is especially useful in reclamation and erosion control and is common in the western states and some of the northeastern states.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 85,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-15

Mature Height: 12-14"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Meadow Brome

Meadow brome, Bromus biebersteinii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass that spreads by short rhizomes. Meadow brome can reach 2 to 6 feet in height when irrigated. It is primarily used for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow brome is very winter hardy and it performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. It is used in cool, moist climates across the northern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 85,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Mature Height: 24-72"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Meadow Foxtail

Meadow foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis, is a cool-season, perennial bunchgrass that sometimes produces short rhizomes. It is similar to creeping meadow foxtail but is not aggressive and less productive. It can be found in moist meadows, ditches, and stream banks with poorly drained, acidic and salty soils. Meadow foxtail is used for erosion control and as a nutritious and palatable forage in irrigated pastures and ranges at higher elevations or wet sites.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 650,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-5

Mature Height: 13-25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Muttongrass

Muttongrass, Poa fendleriana, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass that usually grows 12 to 24 inches tall. The leaves are 2 to 12 inches long, growing largely from the base of the plant which has clusters of small, silvery-pink flowers. It is closely related to Cusick’s Bluegrass. This is a common grass of open woodland and forested areas and commonly used for grazing. Muttongrass is grown on a wide range of elevation and ranges on the western part of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,000,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-3

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Native Red Fescue

Native red fescue, Festuca rubra, is a low-growing shade and moist tolerant native grass. It is used for the restoration of meadows and wetlands in the Northwest. It is considered to be native to the northern coastal regions of the United States but has been introduced throughout many other countries. It grows best in dry or wet habitats at elevations ranging from sea level to alpine in various soil compositions and fertility. Native red fescue is tolerant of shade and drought and is a very vigorous, dense native grass. It has restoration purposes but can also be used as forage for cattle and horses. As a forage crop in alpine ranges, its foliage survives and retains its nutritional value through frost and cold temperatures. A common variety of native red fescue is Molate.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 615,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 14-20

Mature Height: 13-25+"; Growth Habit: Sod

Newhy Hybrid Wheatgrass

Newhy hybrid wheatgrass, Elymus hoffmanii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced, sod-forming grass that grows 12 to 24 inches tall. It is a cross between quackgrass and bluebunch wheatgrass making it both aggressive and productive. Newhy wheatgrass will recover quickly after grazing. It is used on both irrigated and dryland sites throughout the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 120,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-14

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Prairie Junegrass

Prairie junegrass, Koeleria macrantha, is a perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass that grows 12 to 30 inches tall. It persists in open woodlands and ponderosa pine at higher elevations. Prairie junegrass is used for revegetating rangeland, mine sites, and other disturbed sites. It is commonly found across southern Canada to Texas, California, and Washington.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,315,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1-2

Mature Height: 12-30"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Pubescent Wheatgrass

Pubescent wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. trichophorum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. The grass has basal-type leaves and spreads by rhizomes. The strongest asset of pubescent wheatgrass is its ability to stay green into the summer months when soil moisture is adequate. It has adapted to a wide range of conditions including low-fertility soils and is saline soil tolerant making it drought and winter tolerant. Pubescent wheatgrass yields high-quality hay and pasture grass. Common varieties include Luna, Mandan, and Manska. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 95,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Sod

Redtop

Reptop, Agrostis gigantea, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass growing to 30 or 40 inches tall. This variety has a coarse but fairly dense turf that has slender stems. It will grow under a wide variety of soil and moisture conditions, is drought resistant, and also grows well on poorly drained soils. Redtop is used for erosion control, pastures, temporary grass in turf seedings, and occasionally for hay. It is distributed throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 4,850,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 0.5-1

Mature Height: 30-40"; Growth Habit: Sod

Roemer's Fescue

Roemer's fescue is a perennial, native bunchgrass found west of the Cascade Mountains in the northwest. It can be found on moderately dry to moist soils in prairies, savannas, on the edges of forests, and grassy openings. Roemer's fescue prefers well-drained, moderately acidic to slightly alkaline soils in full sun to partial shade. Most populations remain productive for 6 to 10 years with a slow establishment the first year. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 450,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8

Mature Height: 25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Rough Fescue

Rough fescue, Festuca campestris, is a perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass averaging 12 to 14 inches in height. The basal leaves have a purple coloration and are firm, rough, and tightly enrolled. Rough fescue thrives on sandy loams to moderately-heavy soils making it the highest producing bunchgrass in the mountain grasslands. It is not tolerant of any extremes in soil salinity, acidity or drought. Rough fescue can be found in open mountain grasslands to the foothills and northern prairies. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 200,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-10

Mature Height: 12-14"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Russian Wildrye

Russian wildrye, Psathyrostachys juncea, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass reaching 2 to 4 feet in height. It can be grown on a fairly wide range of soil types but it is most productive on fertile loam soils to heavy clay soils. Russian wildrye is exceptionally cold and drought tolerant and is one of the most versatile forage grasses available for dryland pastures. It is deep-rooted with leafy forage making it used extensively for late summer and fall grazing. This variety is established in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Common varieties includeSwift and Bozoisky. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 162,500; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-15

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Sandberg Bluegrass

Sandberg bluegrass, Poa sandbergii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bluegrass reaching 24 to 48 inches in height. It thrives on a variety of soils from moderately coarse sands to fine clays. Sandberg bluegrass is distributed throughout the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,000,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Sheep Fescue

Sheep fescue, Festuca ovina, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 24 inches tall. It is well adapted to most soil conditions and can be used for erosion control and low maintenance mixtures. Sheep fescue is found across the entire United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 400,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/1,000 sq. ft): 5-6

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Siberian Wheatgrass

Siberian wheatgrass, Agropyron fragile ssp. sibericum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass. Similar to desert wheatgrass, Siberian is more drought tolerant and retains its greenness and palatability later into the summer than standard, fairway or even the hybrid cross types. Common varieties include Stabilizer and Vavilov II. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 205,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-11

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Slender Wheatgrass

Slender wheatgrass, Elymus trachucaulus ssp. trachycaulus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, tufted bunchgrass ranging in height from 24 to 30 inches. It has very short rhizomes which prefer loams and sandy loam soils. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the western United States and the northern Great Plains. Common varieties of slender wheatgrass include Firststrike, Pryor, and San Luis.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 135,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 24-30"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Snake River Wheatgrass

Snake River wheatgrass, Elymus wawawaiensis, is a subspecies of bluebunch wheatgrass that is a palatable, cool-season, native grass common in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain United States. It is persistent, drought-tolerant, and compatible with slower growing natives. Common varieties of Snake River wheatgrass include Discovery and Secar.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 117,500, Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-8

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Crested Wheatgrass

Crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch type reaching 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought-tolerant and winter-hardy grass has a deep-rooted system making it an excellent soil binder. Crested wheatgrass is commonly recommended for a palatable forage production and is one of the most significant cultivated grasses in the United States used for conservation and forage. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately coarse to fine-textured, moderately well to well-drained soils. Crested wheatgrass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. Common varieties include Ephraim, Douglas, Kirk, and Roadcrest. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Streambank Wheatgrass

Streambank wheatgrass, Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native grass growing from 12 to 36 inches tall. The leaves have a light green and grey tint and are somewhat curled on the ends. It is drought tolerant and commonly used for reclamation and forage production. Streambank wheatgrass is found in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain region of the western United States. Sodar is a common variety of streambank wheatgrass.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 156,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Tall Wheatgrass

Tall wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 3 to 7 feet tall. It is a tall, coarse, late-maturing grass that is especially tolerant of saline or alkali soils and adapted to either irrigated or sub-irrigated. It prefers soils with a high water table. Tall wheatgrass is used in wildlife plantings where its tall, persistent, bunchy growth provides nesting sites and cover for upland gamebirds. Tall wheatgrass occurs in the Rocky Mountain region from northern New Mexico to Canada. Common varieties include Alkar, Hercules, Hulk, and Jose. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 75,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-15

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Thickspike Wheatgrass

Thickspike wheatgrass, Elymus lanceolatus ss. lanceolatus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native sod-forming grass growing from 12 to 36 inches tall. Its extensive rhizomatous root system combined with a few deep roots makes it more drought tolerant than western wheatgrass. This species is common to the northern Great Plains and Intermountain region of the western United States. Common varieties of thickspike wheatgrass include Bannock and Critana. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 154,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Quickguard Triticale

Quickguard triticale, Triticum aestivum x Secale cereale, is a hardy hybrid of wheat and cereal rye producing a high yield of forage. Quickguard combines the grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with the vigor and hardiness of rye. Both winter and spring types were developed with an emphasis on spring types. Quickguard is an annual, cool-season, introduced cover grass. It is well-adapted to a wide range of soil varieties and is used for reclamation and stabilization of disturbed areas. Quickguard is adapted all across the United States. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 14,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-20

Mature Height: 18-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Tufted Hairgrass

Tufted hairgrass, Deschampsia caespitosa, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, densely tufted bunchgrass, growing 24 to 48 inches tall. It grows in deep, moisture-saturated, poorly or drained soils, and well-developed soils. It is somewhat tolerant to salt and alkalinity. Tufted hairgrass is considered to be a good forage for livestock and wildlife. It resists toxic wastes and is therefore often used in the reclamation of mining sites. It is also recommended for the reclamation of subalpine, alpine, and mountain meadow habitats. Tufted hairgrass is found in the Rocky Mountain region and west to the coast, and northeastern states.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,500,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1-2

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Upland Bluegrass

Upland or glaucous bluegrass, Poa glauca, is low growing and resembles Canada bluegrass. It it loosely tufted and spreads from its roots. Upland bluegrass is great for erosion control and vegetation.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,000,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 1-2

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Western Fescue


Western fescue, Festuca occidentalis, is a bunchgrass native to much of the northern half of North America and is most widely distributed in the west. It is typically found in forest and woodland habitats. Western fescue does best on dry to moist, rocky soil with low water and partial shade requirements. Western fescue is a densely or loosely clumping bunchgrass with very thin stems reaching maximum heights of about 3 feet. The soft leaves reach up to about 25 centimeters in length and are somewhat hairlike. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 400,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8

Mature Height: 25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Western Wheatgrass

Western wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12 to 36 inches tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium to fine-textured soils. It has adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. Western wheatgrass is a good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, southwest, and Intermountain region of the western United States. Common varieties include Arriba and Rosanna. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 115,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Inland Saltgrass

Inland saltgrass, Distichlis stricta, is a warm-season perennial with tough, scaly rhizomes that will grow 4 to 16 inches tall. This species is found in wetlands, swales and margins of ponds, lakes, and reservoirs across the entire United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 520,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-10

Mature Height: 4-16"; Growth Habit: Sod

Prairie Sandreed

Prairie sandreed, Calamovilfa longifolia, is a long-lived perennial, warm-season grass growing 24 to 72 inches in height. This native sod-forming grass possesses rigid, leafy stems. It is used mostly for range seedings in mixtures and it prefers sandy sites and is drought tolerant and winter hardy. Prairie sandreed is found in the northern and central Great Plains and intermountain desertic basin plant growth regions.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 274,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-7

Mature Height: 24-72"; Growth Habit: Sod

Sand Dropseed

Sand dropseed, Sporobolus cryptandrus, is a perennial, warm-season, native bunch grass growing 16 to 40 inches tall. It is without rhizomes and commonly grows on sandy soils but is also adapted to medium-textured soils. It is not tolerant of wet soils. Sand dropseed is a very essential grass for wind erosion control on sandy soil sites.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 5,600,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): .5-1

Mature Height: 16-40"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Switchgrass

Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, is a perennial, warm-season, native sod-forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding, and drought. Seedlings tend to be slow to develop and are susceptible to weed competition. This species prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils. Switchgrass provides high-quality pasture and hay for livestock and is also used for reclamation sand dunes and dikes. It has climatically adapted throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate); 259,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-3

Mature Height: 36-60"; Growth Habit: Sod

Cicer Milkvetch

Cicer Milkvetch, Astragalus cicer L., is an extremely winter-hardy, long-lived, sod-forming perennial legume. Its forage is late-maturing, bloat-free, succulent, and very palatable for all classes of livestock. It has been utilized and quality pasture and forage and requires at least 14 inches of average rainfall.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 130,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7

Crown Vetch

Crown vetch, Coronilla varia, is an attractive, long-lived perennial legume. It has poor seedling vigor but is persistent once established. Crown vetch is sod-forming and used for erodible soil stabilization, roadside stabilization, mine reclamation, and landscaping. It spreads by underground rootstocks and its creeping stems grow 3 to 5 feet tall. Distinguishing characteristics include leaves with 12 to 14 pairs of leaflets arranged along a common stem and white to purple variegated flowers. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 110,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-20

Sainfoin

Sainfoin, Onobrychis vicilfolia, is a winter-hardy, non-bloat legume whose forage is high in quality, very palatable, and readily consumed. It is deep-rooted and very drought resistant with hollow, succulent stems and pink flowers. Sainfoin is adapted to dryland areas of the western United States. It matures faster than alfalfa providing highly nutritious early spring forage. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 30,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 35-45 (irrigated), (25-35 (dryland) 

Sweetvetch

Sweetvetch, Hedysarum boreale, is a drought tolerant, native perennial adapted to grassy slopes, rocky hillsides, canyons and high shrublands. It is commonly called Utah sweetvetch and is widely distributed throughout the United States. Sweetvetch is an attractive legume with colorful pink-purple pea-like flowers that bloom from May to August. It prefers well-drained loamy sites, but is tolerant of sandy or clay soils. Sweetvetch is used for habitat restoration, reclamation and roadsides and is also a very palatable for livestock and wildlife. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 33,600; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-25