Forage, Rangeland & Cover Crop Seed

At Landmark Turf & Native Seed, we offer stock specific forage seeds and mixes as well as formulations for low input naturalization. Seeds are professionally selected and intended to provide high yields and low management.

Our pasture formulations and mixes feature proven and reliable varieties intended to provide the nutrition your livestock needs while holding up to today’s intensive grazing methods year after year.

Yellow Blossom Sweetclover

Yellow Blossom Sweetclover is a cold-tolerant biennial that is very easy to establish. Drought and cold tolerant, use for erosion control on saline and alkaline soils. Matures 10 to 14 days earlier than White Clover.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 260,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8-15

White Dutch Clover

White Dutch Clover is a short-lived, creeping perennial. It's shallow-rooted so it makes a good choice for lawns and pasture mixes. Very cold hardy.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 800,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-7

Sweetvetch

Attractive perennial adapted to grassy slopes, rocky hillsides, canyons and high shrublands. Palatable.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 50,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 2-7

Sickle-Keeled Lupine / Hederma

Provides rapid cover on critical erosion sites such as roadside seedings and reforestation plantings. Plants are nitrogen fixers and provide wildlife cover. Grows best under 1,800 ft. in Western Oregon, Washington and Northern California with annual rainfall up to 80 inches.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 15,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 4-20

Sainfoin

Sainfoin is a winter-hardy, non-bloat legume whose forage is high in quality, very palatable and readily consumed. It is deep-rooted and very drought resistant.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 18,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-34

Perennial Lupine

Occurs on open, coarse soils throughout North America. Common in mixes. Purple (Spring)

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 16,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 4-20

New Zealand White Clover

Similar to White Dutch, but prefers milder temperatures with high humidity and rainfall.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 800,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 3-5

Medium Red Clover

Red clover is a short-lived perennial, 2-3 years, and usually produces 2-3 cuttings of hay or silage per year with most aggressive growth in Spring. Red Clover is an aggressive establisher and can be seeded alone, in mixtures with grasses, frost-seeded with a nurse crop, or interseeded into an existing stand. Forage quality is comparable with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedule.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 275,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-12

Lupins

Lupins are cool-season annual legumes that provide plenty of N and can be grown widely in the USA and southern Canada. Lupins have aggressive taproots, especially the narrow-leaf cultivars. You can kill lupins mechanically or with herbicides. Their hollow stems crush or break readily, making it easy to plant cash crops using conservation tillage equipment.

Crownvetch

Attractive perennial. Poor seedling vigor, but persistent once established. Used for roadside stabilization, mine reclamation and landscaping.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 140,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 2-20

Cicer Milkvetch

Cicer Milkvetch is an extremely winter-hardy, long-lived, sod-forming perennial legume. Its forage is late-maturing, bloat-free, succulent and very palatable for all classes of livestock.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 130,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-7

Birdsfoot Trefoil

Birdsfoot Trefoil is a long-lived legume, highly palatable, with a high feed value. It's winter-hardy, widely adapted, easy to maintain and has certain advantages over alfalfa, ladino or red clover. It is more tolerant of infertile and acidic soil, less likely to cause bloat and survives better than most legumes.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 375,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 4-10

Alsike Clover

Aislike Clover is a winter-hardy, short-lived perennial clover that acts as a biennial. It is well adapted to cool climates and wet soils. Aislike is ideal for hay production in areas of high precipitation or poorly drained soils and for short rotation pasture mixes.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 700,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 2-10

Subterranean Clover

These Low growing, self-reseeding legumes produce high N contribution. Fall planted subclovers thrive in Mediterranean conditions of mild, moist winters and dry summers on soils of low to moderate fertility. Popularity of subclovers is growing in the coastal mid-Atlantic and Southeastern US ( Hardiness Zone 7 and warmer). Subclovers are used in thousands of acres of almond orchards in California. Some cultivars tolerate alkaline soils and waterlogged conditions.

Mustards

Mustard is a name that is applied to many different botanical species, including white or yellow mustard (Sinapis alba, sometimes referred to as Brassica hirta), brown or Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)—sometimes erroneously referred to as canola—and black mustard (B. nigra (L.). The glucosinolate content of most mustards is very high compared to the true Brassicas. Mustards also produce significant biomass, and capture high amounts of residual N. Because mustards are sensitive to freezing, winterkilling at about 25º F, they are used either as a spring/summer crop or they winter kill except in areas with little freeze danger. Brown and field mustard both can grow to 6 feet tall. In wheat/mustard-potato systems, Mustards show promise for reducing or eliminating the soil fumigants.

Mammoth Red Clover

A dependable, low-cost, readily available workhorse that is winter hardy in much of the U.S. (Hardiness Zone 4 and warmer). Easily overseeded or frostseeded into standing crops, it creates loamy topsoil, adds a moderate amount of N, helps to suppress weeds and breaks up heavy soil. Its most common uses include forage, grazing, plowdown N and, in warmer areas, hay. It's a great legume to frostseed or interseed with small grains where you can harvest grain as well as provide weed suppression and manage N.

Ladino Clover

Ladino is a long-lived perennial, which spreads by creeping stems or stolons that root at the nodes. A giant form of white clover that is very high in protein, vitamins and minerals. It's a good producer of high-quality feed and is utilized extensively as a soil building crop. It's an excellent legume to use in combination with other legumes and grasses.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 800,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-7

Hairy Vetch

Hairy Vetch is a hardy, winter annual legume that can be planted in either fall or spring. It is used for cover cropping, hay, pasture or as erosion control and is commonly planted with cereal grains. Few legumes match hairy vetch for spring residue production or nitrogen contribution. Widely adapted and winter hardy through Hardiness Zone 4 and into Zone 3 (with snow cover), hairy vetch is a top N rovider in temperate and subtropical regions. The cover grows slowly in fall, but root development continues over winter. Growth quickens in spring, when hairy vetch becomes a sprawling vine. Nitrogen source, Soil conditioner, Early weed suppression, Good with grains, Moisture-thrifty, Phosphorus scavenger, Fits many systems, Widely adapted.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 20,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 20-25

Crimson Clover

Crimson clover, as a winter annual, is usually planted in the late summer to early fall. Used as a winter cover for soil protection or green manure crop for soil improvement. It can be utilized in pasture, hay, organic farming, pollinator enhancement, or silage mixes.

Cowpeas

Cowpeas are the most productive heatadapted legume used agronomically in the U.S. They thrive in hot, moist zones where corn flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth. Cowpeas protect soil from erosion, smother weeds and produce 100 to 150 lb. N/A.

Buckwheat

Buckwheat is the speedy short-season cover crop. It establishes, blooms and reaches maturity in just 70 to 90 days and its residue breaks down quickly. Buckwheat sup -presses weeds and attracts beneficial insects and pollinators with its abundant blossoms. It is easy to kill, and Buckwheat’s dense, fibrous roots cluster in the top 10 inches of soil, provides an extensive root surface area for nutrient uptake. It takes up phosphorus and some minor nutrients that are otherwise unavailable to crops, then releasing these nutrients to later crops as the residue breaks down.

Berseem Clover

A fast-growing summer annual, Berseem clover can produce up to 8 tons of forage under irrigation. It's a heavy N producer and the least winter hardy of all true annual clovers. This makes it an ideal winterkilled cover before corn or other nitrogen-demanding crops in Corn Belt rotations. Berseem clover draws down soil N early in its cycle. Once soil reserves are used up, it can fix 100 to 200 lb. N/A or more. It establishes well with an oat nurse crop, making it an excellent cover for small grain>corn>soybean rotations.

Balansa Clover

A newer cover crop used in the Southeastern U.S., balansa clover (Trifolium michelianum Savi) is a small-seeded annual legume with superior reseeding potential compared with other legumes, including crimson clover. Well-adapted to a wide range of soil types, balansa performs particularly well on silty clay soil with a pH of about 6.5. Established stands tolerate waterlogging, moderate salinity, and soil pH from 4.5 to 8.0. It does not do well on highly alkaline soils (30). It is considered marginal in Zone 6B.

Australian Winter Peas (Field Peas)

High N-fixers, AWP produce abundant vining forage and contribute to short-term soil conditioning. succulent stems break down easily and are a quick source of available N. AWP grow rapidly in the cool, moist weather they encounter as winter annuals in the South, and as early-sown summer annuals in the Northeast, North Central and Northern Plains areas. Austrian winter peas, can withstand temperatures as low as 10° F with only minor injury, but they don’t overwinter consistently in areas colder than moderate Hardiness Zone 6. Under a long, cool, moist season during their vegetative stages, Austrian winter peas produce more than 5,000 lb. dry matter/A. Austrian winter peas are top N producers, yielding from 90 to 150 lb. N/A, and at times up to 300 lb. N/A. Water thrifty, Quick growing, Forage booster, Long-term bloomer ( an early and extended source of nectar for honeybees), Chill tolerant.

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a deep-rooted and moderately long-lived perennial. One of the most widely used legumes for hay production. Also found in pasture, range and revegetation mixes. Some varieties exhibit spreading ability that is suitable for grazing.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 15-25

Wheat

Wheat is an annual or biennial grass that is widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially important grain. There are many different varieties of Wheat grown throughout the world, such as Soft/Hard/White/Red. However, there are only two classifications of wheat, winter and spring. Each particular type of Wheat, Hard Red, Soft Red, Hard White, Soft White and Durum have a different use in the flour milling industry, and may require slightly different climatic growing conditions.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 12,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 60+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Western Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12" to 36” tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium- to fine-textured soils. It has adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. A good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, Southwest, and Intermountain Region of the Western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 117,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 10" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Triticale

Triticale is a hardy hybrid of wheat and cereal rye producing a high yield of forage. Combination of grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with the vigor and hardiness of rye. Both winter and spring types were developed, with emphasis on spring types.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 14,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 60+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Timothy

A relatively short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass that grows in erect stools or culms 20" to 40” tall. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system, which thrives best on rich, moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils, such as clay loams. It does not do well on coarser soils. Timothy is palatable and nutritious and mostly used for hay but also makes good pasture and silage. It has adapted to a cool and humid climate and is distributed throughout the entire United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate: 1,232,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 1-10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 16" Mature Height: 13-24+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Tall Wheatgrass

A perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass that grows 3 to 7 feet tall. It is a tall, coarse, late-maturing grass that is especially tolerant of saline or alkali soils and adapted to either irrigated or sub-irrigated. It prefers soils with a high water table. Used in wildlife plantings where its tall, persistent, bunchy growth provides nesting sites and cover for upland gamebirds. Occurring in the Rocky Mountain region from Northern New Mexico to Canada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 77,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8-10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Tall Fescue

Very adaptable to soil and moisture types. Used for pasture, hay, turf and erosion control. Grazes closely.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 224,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Switchgrass

A perennial, warm-season, native sod-forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought. Seedlings tend to be slow to develop, and are susceptible to weed competition. Prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils. Provides high-quality pasture and hay for livestock. Also used for reclamation sand dunes and dikes. It has climatically adapted throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate); 332,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 19" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Sudangrass

Highly palatable and high-yielding summer annual forage. Adapted to many types of soils and environments, use with caution when grazing or haying because of nitrates and prussic acid.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 68,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 20-30

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Sorghum-sudangrass

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are unrivaled for adding organic matter to worn-out soils. These tall, fast-growing, heat-loving summer annual grasses can smother weeds, suppress some nematode species and penetrate compacted sub -soil if mowed once.

Sorghum

Widely cultivated as a grain and forage, Sorghum is a drought tolerant bunch grass type. Typically used for milo grain production in the South and forage production in the North.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 60,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 20-40

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Smooth Brome

A perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming growing 24" to 48” spread by rhizomes. Frequently the leaves are marked by a transverse wrinkle resembling a “W” a short distance below the tip. It is resistant to drought and extremes in temperature. Smooth Brome is the most widely used of the cultivated bromegrasses. It is distributed throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 15" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Slender Wheatgrass

A short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, tufted bunch grass ranging in height from 24" to 30”. It has very short rhizomes, which prefer loams and sandy loams. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the Western United States and the Northern Great Plains.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 6-8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 16" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Siberian Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass. Similar to Desert Wheatgrass, Siberian is more drought tolerant and retains its greenness and palatability later into the summer than standard, fairway or even the hybrid cross types.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 205,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 6-8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 8" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Reed Canarygrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass reaching a height of 6 to 8 feet. The extensive, rhizomatous root system protects it from drought, but is also suited to wet soils and dense growth of coarse erect stems, providing excellent erosion control, especially along stream banks, shorelines and waterways. It can be found throughout the West, North and Northeastern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 529,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 16" Mature Height: 6-8' Growth Habit: Sod

Pubescent Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass 36" to 48”. The grass has basal-type leaves and spreads by rhizomes. Its strongest asset is its ability to stay green into the summer months when soil moisture is adequate. It has adapted to a wide range of conditions, including low-fertility soils and is saline soil tolerant, making it drought and winter tolerant. Pubescent Wheatgrass yields high-quality hay and pasture grass.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 90,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 10-12

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Perennial Ryegrass

A perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass growing to a height of 18" to 36”. Perennial Ryegrass is one of the most widely used grasses and is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climatic conditions. With a leafy head and fine stem, it is considered very palatable, used for both forage and hay. A proven performer in pastures in the northern area of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 237,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 15-35

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Orchardgrass

A persistent perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass, forming distinct flowering clumps 24" to 48” tall. It is one of the earliest species to grow in the spring, making tremendous growth during cool conditions. It performs well on different textured soils ranging from clay to gravelly loams and on shallow to deep soils. The primary use of Orchardgrass is for forage production and is highly palatable to all livestock.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 541,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 13-25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Oats

The oat plant is an annual grass with kinds and varieties adapted either to fall planting and midsummer harvest or spring planting and late summer harvest. Most oats are used for livestock feed in this country either as grain, pasture, hay or silage. Less than 5% of the total oat production in this country is used as food for human consumption. The human consumption is mainly in the form of breakfast foods and oat flour.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 14,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 60+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Mountain Brome

Less aggressive than Smooth Brome. A short-lived, perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing 3 to 4 feet tall. Prefers deep, fertile, mesic soils of medium to fine textures, but also survives on thin, dry or coarse soils, resulting in lower production levels. It is winter hardy and has good shade tolerance and fair tolerance to fire. Well-adapted to the Northwestern regions, the foothills and mountains of the Intermountain West and some Midwestern States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 70,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 16" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Meadow Brome

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass that spreads by short rhizomes. Reaching 2 to 6 feet in height when irrigated. Its primary use is for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow Brome is very winter hardy. It performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. Used in cool, moist climates across the Northern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 65,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 10-12

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 16" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Little Bluestem

A slow-growing perennial, warm-season, native bunch grass reaching a height from 18” in dry areas to 3 to 5 feet in deep, fertile soils. It displays coarse stems and basal leaves are greenish-blue to purplish in color. It grows on a wide variety of soils, but is very well-adapted to well-drained, medium to dry, infertile high-salinity soils. Resistant to trampling. For forage it is very palatable for livestock, deer, and elk and suitable for hay. Distributed throughout the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate); 260,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-20

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Japanese Millet

Japanese millet grows 2 to 4 feet tall. Taller and coarser than other foxtail millets, it matures quickly and thus its forage yield is much less than that of pearl millet. Japanese millet is also planted for wildlife feed and for temporary soil stabilization on construction sites.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 110,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 15

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Intermediate Wheatgrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36" to 48” tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep-feeding root system, preferring well-drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate Wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 89,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 13-25" Growth Habit: Sod

Highland Bentgrass

Highland or Dryland bentgrass. Stoloniferous and high-crowned. Unacceptable for quality turf. Reclamation and roadside use.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 6,000,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 2-4

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Gulf Annual Ryegrass

Fast-establishing, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 200-700

German Millet

German or Foxtail Millet. A popular hay type millet that is leafy and fine-stemmed with compact heads. It exhibits good lodging resistance. The hay is sweet and palatable when harvested at late bloom. It is later than Siberian Millet with yellow seed.

Seeds/Pounds (approximate): 200,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 25+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Annual

Festolium

A short-lived, perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass. Derived from a cross between Italian Ryegrass and Meadow Fescue. Its ease of establishment and management, drought resistance, rapid regrowth and good disease resistance are combined with season long productivity and high forage palatability.

Fawn Tall Fescue

Forage and erosion control use. Cool-season bunch type. Fast establishing.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 224,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Crested Wheatgrass (Fairway Type)

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch type reaching 12" to 36” tall. Drought-tolerant and winter-hardy grass with a deep-rooted system making an excellent soil binder. Crested Wheatgrass is commonly recommended for a palatable forage production. Crested Wheatgrass is well-adapted to stabilization of disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately coarse to fine-textured, moderately well to well-drained soils. The grass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the Western United States. The Fairway type was first recognized in 1950 as being different than other crested types. Fairway is shorter, denser, finer-stemmed and less productive than Desert Wheatgrass at lower elevations and may exceed Desert Wheatgrass production at higher elevations. Newer varieties such as Eparaim and Roadcrest exhibit strong rhizome activity.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 200,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 8-12

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 10" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Creeping Red Fescue

Adapted to most soil types. Valued for shade tolerance. Important turf grass and erosion control grass.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 547,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 12

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 13-25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Creeping Meadow Foxtail

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming, grass that grows 12" to 24” tall. It is extremely winter-hardy and recovers quickly from grazing due to its numerous aggressive underground rhizomes. Creeping Meadow Foxtail is palatable to all classes of livestock. Most commonly utilized throughout the Pacific Northwest, Intermountain West, Northern Great Plain States and Western Canada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 756,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 3-4

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 25" Mature Height: 13-25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Common Kentucky Bluegrass

Perennial. Used extensively for turf and pasture. Very palatable. Withstands heavy traffic and grazing.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,100,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 90-135

Columbia Needlegrass

A perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass that grows 6" to 24” tall, without rhizomes. Growth starts in mid-spring, matures by September, reproduces from seeds and tillers and may regrow in the fall if moisture is adequate. Provides good forage for livestock and wildlife, however, injury can occur from the sharp-pointed callus, working into the ears, eyes, nostrils and tongues of grazing animals. Also used for rangelands and reclamation, it is commonly found across the Western US from Canada to Mexico.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 175,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 6-8

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 12" Mature Height: 6-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Cereal Rye

The hardiest of cereals, rye can be seeded later in fall than other cover crops and still provide considerable dry matter, an extensive soil-holding root system, significant reduction of nitrate leaching and exceptional weed suppression. Rye is the best cool-season cereal cover for absorbing unused soil N.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 29,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 80+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Annual

Canada Bluegrass

Low-growing and palatable. Adaptable to poor soil. Commonly used for roadside erosion.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 2,500,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 1-2

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Sod

Black Oat (Bristle Oat)

Black oat (Avena strigosa L.) is the No. 1 cover crop on millions of acres of conservation-tilled soybean in southern Brazil, and is increasing use the southern USA (Zones 8-10). Black oat produces large amounts of biomass, similar to rye. It maintains a narrower carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio than rye so it cycles nitrogen better than rye, important for nitrogen management in conservation tillage systems. It breaks disease cycles for wheat and soybean and is resistant to root-knot nematodes. It is very resistant to rusts and has excep tional allelopathic activity for weed control. It is easy to kill mechanically.

Big Bluestem

A perennial, warm-season, native-tufted, sod-forming grass. It is tall, reaching a height of 6 to 8 feet on most sites when left ungrazed. It has short, scaly rhizomes and seed heads that normally have 3 spikelets that appear like a ‘turkey foot'. Occurring from the short grass prairie region to the Atlantic Ocean.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 140,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5-20

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 18" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Sod

Big Bluegrass

A long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing 24" to 48” high. It is a tall, tufted grass that is remarkably drought resistant. Known for high production of palatable forage making it a very valuable range grass. Big Bluegrass is the largest of the native bluegrasses found in the Intermountain zone of the Northwest United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 899,500 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 5

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 8" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Bermudagrass

Ask for availability of proprietary turf and common bermudagrasses.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,600,000 (unhulled) / 2,200,000 (hulled)

Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 90

Beardless Bluebunch Wheatgrass

A perennial, cool-season, native, erect bunch grass, 12" to 30” tall, often with short rhizomes. It has a wide spectrum of adaptations. It is found on all aspects on mountain slopes, benches, basins, alluvial fans, and in valley bottoms. Adapted to a wide variety of soils, but is found mostly in well-drained, medium to coarse textured soils, which vary in depth from shallow to very deep.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 86,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 7-9

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 10" Mature Height: 13-24" Growth Habit: Bunch

Barley

Barley is an annual or biennial grass that is widely cultivated for yielding grain for breakfast food, animal feed and in malt beverages. Black barley, awnless, hooded, 2 row, 6 row, different awn lengths and different spike lengths characterize the many barley types.

Seeds/Pounds (approximate): 12,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 60+

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 14" Mature Height: 25+" Growth Habit: Bunch

Annual Ryegrass

Annual Ryegrass has an extensive, soilholding root system. Fast-establishing, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses. The cover crop establishes quickly even in poor, rocky or wet soils and tolerates some flooding once established. It’s well-suited for field strips, grass waterways or exposed areas. Fast-establishing, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses. Annual Ryegrass’s dense yet shallow root system improves water infiltration and enhances soil tilth. A high N user, Annual ryegrass can capture leftover N and reduce nitrate leaching over winter. Widely adapted annual. Quick establishment. Highly palatable. Short-term erosion control.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 10

Minimum Annual Precipitation: 10" Mature Height: 13-25+" Growth Habit: Annual

VITALITY PRO 375CR Alfalfa

VITALITY PRO™ 375CR alfalfa is a new conventional creeping rooted alfalfa with rhizomatous stems designed for dry land pastures. As the alfalfa stand gets older the adventitious stems develop crowns to fill in the stand. VITALITY PRO 375CR can be used for both hay and pasture systems. It expresses the branch rooted trait that can tolerate wetter conditions.

Ladak + Alfalfa

Ladak + Alfalfa is a drought tolerant cultivar selected from a 28-year-old alfalfa stand near Spokane, WA. Ladak + Alfalfa exhibits improved persistence, drought tolerance and seed yield, and is highly resistant to Bacterial Wilt, Phytopthora root rot and stem nematode.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000 Seeding Rate (Pounds/Acre): 15-25

Phacelia tanacetifolia (Lacy Phacelia)

Phacelia tanacetifolia , aka. Lacy Phacelia, is used extensively in Europe, both as a cover crop and bee forage, and is gowing in popularity & use in the US. Phacelia is quick to grow and flower and grows well in dry soil. It does a good job of limiting nitrate leaching when planted in early fall. It winterkills at about 18°F. In cooler regions, it can be used as a between cash crops cover crop in the summer. Phacelia is listed as one of the top 20 honey-producing flowers for honeybees and is also highly attractive to bumblebees and syrphid (hover) flies. Phacelia's habit of flowering abundantly and for a long period can increase beneficial insect numbers and diversity, because it provides high quality nectar and pollen.

NEMAFLEX RADISH

NEMAFLEX has resistance to nematodes, breaks the pest cycle and reduces damage to following crops. It improves soil and water quality, and increases farmland productivity. NEMAFLEX is an agronomic tool to alleviate soil compaction, soil born pests, capture, recycle & redistribute Nitrogen and other nutrients, enhance the seedbed for following crop, reduce leaching, runoff & erosion, build soil organic matter & microbial action, and attract beneficial insects.

ATTACK MUSTARD

ATTACK, a Bio-Fumigation tool with resistance to Columbia Root Knot Nematode and Sugar Beet Cyst Nematodes, can be utilized by organic growers, as well as to reduce fumigation pesticide use in IPM programs.

ANACONDA RADISH

ANACONDA, a ‘double resistant’ selection, ANACONDA’s resistance to M. chitwoodi and H. schachtii nematodes breaks the pest cycle and reduces damage to following crops. Anaconda improves soil health and water quality, and increases productivity.

NUTRAGRAZE Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass

NUTRAGRAZE establishes fast, has upright vegetative growth and combines high forage production potential, with excellent palatability, and persistence.

MADONNA Westerwold Annual Ryegrass

MADONNA 4N Westerwold ryegrass.... A true annual, MADONNA produces high forage and seed yield, crown rust resistance, and excellent palatability with ‘soft leaf’ and high sugar and starch content.

FUSTA Tettraploid Perennial Ryegrass

FUSTA is a high production tetraploid perennial ryegrass (4N-PRG) developed for managed rotational grazing, green-chop, pasture mixtures, haylage and hay production.

EverLeaf 126 Forage Oats

EverLeaf ™126 is a true spring oat with dark green foliage, an erect growth habit, and very good standability. EverLeaf™ 126 has leaves that actually extend above the canopy at heading. EverLeaf ™126 is a delayed heading oat and much of its forage mass and quality come from an extended maturity. Since the plant is naturally vegetative for a longer period, biomass accumulation is extraordinary. EverLeaf™ 126 has a compact panicle that offers an attractive product when baled.

CRP Mixes

Conservation Reserve Program, CRP, Seed Mixes reduce soil erosion, protect the Nation's ability to produce food and fiber, reduce sedimentation in streams and lakes, improves water quality, establishes wildlife habitat, and enhances forest and wetland resources. CRP Seed encourages farmers to convert highly erodible cropland or other environmentally sensitive acreage to vegetative cover, such as tame or native grasses, wildlife plantings, trees, filterstrips, or riparian buffers.

For technical specifications and eligibility requirements, consult the USDA Farm Service Agency, & Natural Resource Conservation Service.

Sun Hemp

A tropical legume, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) can produce more than 5,000 lb. dry matter/A and 120 lb. N/A in just nine to 12 weeks. It can fill a narrow niche between harvest of a summer crop and planting of a fall cash or cover crop and is especially fitted to vegetable production. Sunn hemp sown by September 1 following a corn crop in Alabama, for example, can produce an average of 115 lb. N/A by December 1. Sunn hemp is not winter hardy and a hard freeze easily kills it. Sow sunn hemp a minimum of nine weeks before the average date of the first. Sudangrass is highly palatable and high-yielding summer annual forage. Adapted to many types of soils and environments, use with caution when grazing or haying because of nitrates and prussic acid. Sunn hemp seed can only be produced in tropical areas, eliminating the threat of re-seeding /weediness to only the very southern regions of the Gulf States.

Rapeseed (or Canola)

Besides their use as an oil crop, these species are also used for forage. If pest suppression is an objective, rapeseed should be used rather than canola since the breakdown products of glucosinolates are thought to be a principal mechanism for pest control with these cover crops. Rapeseed has been shown to have biological activity against plant parasitic nematodes as well as weeds. Due to its rapid fall growth, rapeseed captures high amounts of residual N and accumulates significant amounts of aboveground biomass.

VITALITY™ Radish

VITALITY Radish is a multi-purpose “Daikon type” (Raphanus sativas var. longipinnatus), also referred to as forage or fodder radish and has been selected for use in cover crop systems to improve water quality, and increase farmland productivity. VITALITY Radish is an agronomic tool to alleviate soil compaction, suppress weeds, capture, recycle & redistribute N and other nutrients in the soil profile, enhance seedbed for following crop, reduce nitrate leaching, reduce runoff & control erosion, build soil organic matter & microbial action, and attract beneficial insects.

MADONNA Westerwold Annual Ryegrass

MADONNA 4N Westerwold ryegrass.... A true annual, MADONNA produces high forage and seed yield, crown rust resistance, and excellent palatability with ‘soft leaf’ and high sugar and starch content.