Forage Seed

At Landmark Turf & Native Seed, we offer stock specific forage seeds and mixes as well as formulations for low input naturalization. Seeds are professionally selected and intended to provide high yields and low management. Our pasture formulations and mixes feature proven and reliable varieties intended to provide the nutrition your livestock needs while holding up to today’s intensive grazing methods year after year.

Native Red Fescue

Native red fescue, Festuca rubra, is a low-growing shade and moist tolerant native grass. It is used for the restoration of meadows and wetlands in the Northwest. It is considered to be native to the northern coastal regions of the United States but has been introduced throughout many other countries. It grows best in dry or wet habitats at elevations ranging from sea level to alpine in various soil compositions and fertility. Native red fescue is tolerant of shade and drought and is a very vigorous, dense native grass. It has restoration purposes but can also be used as forage for cattle and horses. As a forage crop in alpine ranges, its foliage survives and retains its nutritional value through frost and cold temperatures. A common variety of native red fescue is Molate.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 615,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 14-20

Mature Height: 13-25+"; Growth Habit: Sod

Sandberg Bluegrass

Sandberg bluegrass, Poa sandbergii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native bluegrass reaching 24 to 48 inches in height. It thrives on a variety of soils from moderately coarse sands to fine clays. Sandberg bluegrass is distributed throughout the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,000,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Intermediate Ryegrass

Intermediate ryegrass, Lolium hybridium, is a short-lived, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass. It is the result of a cross between annual and perennial ryegrass. Intermediate ryegrass has a finer leaf texture, is very heat tolerant, and is less winter hardy but higher yielding than perennial ryegrass. It is used for grazing, as a rotation crop, or hay production in northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 153,280; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Bloom Period: Summer; Mature Height: 18-36"

Teff Grass

Teff grass, Eragrostis tef, is a summer annual forage for used by livestock and commercial hay producers for its fast growing, high yielding, and competitive forage qualities. Teff is a warm-season, bunch-type grass adapted all across the United States as dry hay, silage or pasture for dairy, beef or horses. It has a wide range of geographic adaptation, the ability to produce competitive yields with low inputs, and superior forage quality versus other summer annual species. It can self-pollinate and can be harvested multiple times with fast growth and high tonnage. Teff is an excellent choice as an emergency crop when weather delays occur or as a rescue crop when perennials have failed. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,300,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7 (raw), 7-10 (coated) 

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Dahurian Wildrye

Dahurian wildrye, Elymus dahuricus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 60 inches tall. Dahurian wildrye has a deep root system allowing good drought tolerance preferring well drained fertile soils. It germinates quickly and regrows aggressively after cutting and grazing, thus providing excellent palatable forage and making it common in pasture mixes. Dahurian wildrye is located in the northeast, Midwest and northwestern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Mature Height: 12-60"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Meadow Foxtail

Meadow foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis, is a cool-season, perennial bunchgrass that sometimes produces short rhizomes. It is similar to creeping meadow foxtail but is not aggressive and less productive. It can be found in moist meadows, ditches, and stream banks with poorly drained, acidic and salty soils. Meadow foxtail is used for erosion control and as a nutritious and palatable forage in irrigated pastures and ranges at higher elevations or wet sites.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 650,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-5

Mature Height: 13-25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Streambank Wheatgrass

Streambank wheatgrass, Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native grass growing from 12 to 36 inches tall. The leaves have a light green and grey tint and are somewhat curled on the ends. It is drought tolerant and commonly used for reclamation and forage production. Streambank wheatgrass is found in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain region of the western United States. Sodar is a common variety of streambank wheatgrass.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 156,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Desert Wheatgrass

Desert wheatgrass, Agropyron desertorum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 1 to 3 feet tall. This species is later maturing and more productive than crested wheatgrass. It is also more drought tolerant than crested or fairway type crested wheatgrass but less drought tolerant than Siberian type wheatgrass. It can be found in the northern Rocky Mountain region and commonly used for forage or reclamation purposes. Nordan is a common variety.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,200; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Bloom Period: Summer; Mature Height: 12-36"

Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass

Larger and more robust than its two parents, Hycrest hybrid crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum x Agropyron desertorum, provides improved forage quality, yield, seedling vigor, establishment, and root development. This hybrid crested wheatgrass is well adapted to sagebrush and juniper sites. Hycrest and Hycrest II are common varieties.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 335,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-10

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Crested Wheatgrass

Crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch type reaching 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought-tolerant and winter-hardy grass has a deep-rooted system making it an excellent soil binder. Crested wheatgrass is commonly recommended for a palatable forage production and is one of the most significant cultivated grasses in the United States used for conservation and forage. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately coarse to fine-textured, moderately well to well-drained soils. Crested wheatgrass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. Common varieties include Ephraim, Douglas, Kirk, and Roadcrest.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Sainfoin

Sainfoin, Onobrychis vicilfolia, is a winter-hardy, non-bloat legume whose forage is high in quality, very palatable, and readily consumed. It is deep-rooted and very drought resistant with hollow, succulent stems and pink flowers. Sainfoin is adapted to dryland areas of the western United States. It matures faster than alfalfa providing highly nutritious early spring forage. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 30,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 35-45 (irrigated), (25-35 (dryland) 

Medium Red Clover

Medium red clover, Trifolium pratense L., is a short-lived perennial of 2-3 years and usually produces 2-3 cuttings of hay or silage per year with the most aggressive growth in the spring. Medium red clover is an aggressive establisher and can be seeded alone, in mixtures with grasses, frost-seeded with a nurse crop, or interseeded into an existing stand. Forage quality is comparable with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedule.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 260,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-12

Western Wheatgrass

Western wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12 to 36 inches tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium to fine-textured soils. It has adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. Western wheatgrass is a good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, southwest, and Intermountain region of the western United States. Common varieties include Arriba and Rosanna.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 115,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Sod

Timothy

Timothy, Phleum pratense, is a relatively short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows in erect stools or culms 20 to 40 inches tall. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system which thrives best on rich, moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils such as clay loams. It does not do well on coarser soils. Timothy is palatable, nutritious, and primarily used for hay but also makes good pasture and silage. It has adapted to a cool and humid climate and is distributed throughout the entire United States. Common varieties include Clair and Climax.

Seeds/Pound (approximate: 1,165,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 20-40"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Tall Wheatgrass

Tall wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 3 to 7 feet tall. It is a tall, coarse, late-maturing grass that is especially tolerant of saline or alkali soils and adapted to either irrigated or sub-irrigated. It prefers soils with a high water table. Tall wheatgrass is used in wildlife plantings where its tall, persistent, bunchy growth provides nesting sites and cover for upland gamebirds. Tall wheatgrass occurs in the Rocky Mountain region from northern New Mexico to Canada. Common varieties include Alkar, Hercules, Hulk, and Jose.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 75,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-15

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Forage Tall Fescue

Forage tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is very adaptable to soil and moisture types. It is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing up to 5 feel tall. This deep-rooted bunchgrass is used for pasture, hay, turf, and erosion control. Forage varieties include KY-31, Malma, and Suede. It will grow fairly well on soils low in fertility but it is better adapted to fertile conditions. Forage tall fescue can be grazed closely and does contain endophytes. Adaptation regions include all areas east of the Great Plains except southern and central Florida. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Mature Height: 24-60"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Piper Sudangrass

Piper sudangrass, Sorghum sudanese, is a variety of sudangrass that is highly palatable and high-yielding summer annual forage. It is adapted to many types of soils and environments but use with caution when grazing or haying because of nitrates and prussic acid.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 68,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-30

Mature Height: 25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Sorghum-Sudangrass

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are unrivaled for adding organic matter to worn-out soils. These tall, fast-growing, heat-loving summer annual grasses can smother weeds, suppress some nematode species and penetrate compacted sub -soil if mowed once. Sorghum-sudangrass makes highly palatable and nutritious forage for grazing or hay. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 20-22,000

Sorghum

Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, is widely cultivated as a grain and forage and is a drought tolerant bunchgrass type. It is typically used for milo grain production in the south and forage production in the north. Forage sorghum is a hybrid with a very sweet stem, excellent leaf retention, and is highly palatable. Forage sorghum has excellent foliar disease resistance and maintains a healthy canopy until harvest. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 16,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-40

Mature Height: 25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Smooth Brome

Smooth brome, Bromus inermis, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming growing 24" to 48” spread by rhizomes. Frequently the leaves are marked by a transverse wrinkle resembling a “W” a short distance below the tip. It is resistant to drought and extreme temperatures. Smooth brome is the most widely used of the cultivated bromegrasses and it is distributed throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 140,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Sod

Slender Wheatgrass

Slender wheatgrass, Elymus trachucaulus ssp. trachycaulus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, tufted bunchgrass ranging in height from 24 to 30 inches. It has very short rhizomes which prefer loams and sandy loam soils. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the western United States and the northern Great Plains. Common varieties of slender wheatgrass include Firststrike, Pryor, and San Luis.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 135,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 24-30"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Siberian Wheatgrass

Siberian wheatgrass, Agropyron fragile ssp. sibericum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass. Similar to desert wheatgrass, Siberian is more drought tolerant and retains its greenness and palatability later into the summer than standard, fairway or even the hybrid cross types. Common varieties include Stabilizer and Vavilov II.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 205,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-11

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Pubescent Wheatgrass

Pubescent wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. trichophorum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass 36 to 48 inches tall. The grass has basal-type leaves and spreads by rhizomes. The strongest asset of pubescent wheatgrass is its ability to stay green into the summer months when soil moisture is adequate. It has adapted to a wide range of conditions including low-fertility soils and is saline soil tolerant making it drought and winter tolerant. Pubescent wheatgrass yields high-quality hay and pasture grass. Common varieties include Luna, Mandan, and Manska.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 95,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Sod

Perennial Ryegrass

Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass growing to a height of 18 to 36 inches. Perennial ryegrass is one of the most widely used grasses and is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climatic conditions. With a leafy head and fine stem, it is considered very palatable and used for both forage and hay. Perennial ryegrass is a proven performer in pastures in the northern area of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 227,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-8

Mature Height: 18-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Orchardgrass

Orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata, is a persistent perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass, forming distinct flowering clumps 24 to 48 inches tall. It is one of the earliest species to grow in the spring making tremendous growth during cool conditions. It performs well on different textured soils ranging from clay to gravelly loams and on shallow to deep soils. The primary use of orchardgrass is for forage production as it is highly palatable to all livestock. Common varieties of orchardgrass include Latar, Paiute, Pennlate, and Potomac II.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 430,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-10

Mature Height: 24-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Mountain Brome

Mountain brome, Bormus marginatus, is a short-lived, perennial, cool-season, native bunch grass growing 3 to 4 feet tall. It is less aggressive than Smooth brome. Mountain brome prefers deep, fertile, mesic soils of medium to fine textures, but also survives on thin, dry or coarse soils, resulting in lower production levels. It is winter hardy and has good shade tolerance and fair tolerance to fire. Mountain brome is well-adapted to the Northwestern regions, the foothills and mountains of the Intermountain West, and some Midwestern States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 65,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Meadow Brome

Meadow brome, Bromus biebersteinii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass that spreads by short rhizomes. Meadow brome can reach 2 to 6 feet in height when irrigated. It is primarily used for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow brome is very winter hardy and it performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. It is used in cool, moist climates across the Northern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 85,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Mature Height: 24-72"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Intermediate Wheatgrass

Intermediate wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. intermedia, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep-feeding root system, preferring well-drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils. Rush and Oahe are common intermediate wheatgrass varieties used for forage and reclamation purposes. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Mature Height: 36-48"; Growth Habit: Sod

Gulf Annual Ryegrass

Gulf annual ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, is a fast-establishing, cool-season grass for turf, forage, and erosion control uses. It is a short-lived annual or biennial introduced bunchgrass. Gulf can adapt to a wide range of soils but thrives on dark, rich soils in regions with mild climates and can tolerate fairly wet soils with reasonably good surface drainage. It has a quick growing, extensive root system making it useful for erosion control and competition against aggressive weeds. It is relatively easy to establish and can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. Gulf annual ryegrass is found throughout the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 200-700

Festulolium

Festulolium, Festulolium braunii, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch grass. It is derived from a cross between Italian ryegrass and meadow fescue. Its ease of establishment and management, drought resistance, rapid regrowth, and good disease resistance are combined with season-long productivity and high forage palatability.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Mature Height: 20-48"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Fawn Tall Fescue

Fawn tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is a cool-season bunch-type grass. This tall fescue variety is used for its palatability, excellent spring vigor, and deep root system which produces a tough sod when seeded thickly and grazed or mowed. Fawn is tolerant of poor drainage, alkalinity and salinity, and is also drought resistant. Production of forage is abundant with irrigation and high fertility levels. Fawn is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. The most frequent use of forage tall fescue is for beef cattle and horse pastures.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-25 (New Seeding), 10-15 (Overseeding) 

Mature Height: 25+"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Crested Wheatgrass (Fairway Type)

Crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunch type reaching 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought-tolerant and winter-hardy grass has a deep-rooted system making it an excellent soil binder. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils. Crested wheatgrass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. The Fairway type was first recognized in 1950 as being different than other crested types. Fairway is shorter, denser, finer-stemmed, and less productive than desert wheatgrass at lower elevations and may exceed desert wheatgrass production at higher elevations. Newer varieties such as Eparaim and Roadcrest exhibit strong rhizome activity.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Mature Height: 12-36"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Creeping Meadow Foxtail

Creeping meadow foxtail, Alopecurus arundinaceus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming, grass that grows 12 to 24 inches tall. It is extremely winter-hardy and recovers quickly from grazing due to its numerous aggressive underground rhizomes. Creeping meadow foxtail is palatable to all classes of livestock. It is most commonly utilized throughout the Pacific Northwest, Intermountain West, Northern Great Plain States, and Western Canada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 785,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Filly Kentucky Bluegrass

Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass that grows 18 to 24 inches tall. It is a darker green foliage with longer leaves and pubescence at the bases of the leaves. In the west, Filly is a very abundant variety and used for hay and forage for sheep and cattle. In the east, other varieties are planted as pasture grass and not typically used for hay.

Seeds/Pound (approximate); 1,200,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Mature Height: 13-24"; Growth Habit: Sod

Sherman Big Bluegrass

Sherman Big bluegrass, Poa ampla, is a long-lived, cool-season bunchgrass that was originally selected from a native range site in Sherman County, Oregon. It is a low-input species that requires as little as 11” of annual rainfall. Sherman Big blue is valuable in soil stabilization, forage-rangeland seedings and dryland hay production, mine reclamation, and provides critical upland wildlife food and habitat.  

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 920,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Mature Height: 12-24"; Growth Habit: Bunch

Annual Ryegrass

Annual ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, has an extensive, soilholding root system. It is a fast-establishing, short-lived annual or biennial depending on climate and growing season, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses. As a cover crop, it establishes quickly even in poor, rocky or wet soils and tolerates some flooding once established. Annual ryegrass is well-suited for field strips, grass waterways, or exposed areas. Its dense yet shallow root system improves water infiltration and enhances soil tilth. As a high nitrogen user, annual ryegrass can capture leftover nitrogen and reduce nitrate leaching throughout the winter. Annual ryegrass is highly palatable and is relatively easy to establish so it can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. It is widely adapted and found throughout the entire United States. Common forage varieties of annual ryegrass include Madonna, Ration, and Westerwold. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-16

Mature Height: 10-36"; Growth Habit: Annual

Nutragraze Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass

Nutragraze tetraploid perennial ryegrass establishes fast, has upright vegetative growth, and combines high forage production potential with excellent palatability and persistence. Nutragraze can also be used as a nurse grass during alfalfa establishment and inter-seeding into pastures annually to extend productivity. It does well in rotational grazing for equine, dairy, lamb, and beef, as well as hay production, silage and green chop production, and pasture inter-seeding. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 25-35 (pure stand), 10-15 (mixed with other grasses), 5-20 (mixed with legumes), 2-4 (used as nurse crop)

Madonna Westerwold Tetraploid Annual Ryegrass

Madonna 4N Westerwold tetraploid ryegrass is a true annual. It produces high forage and seed yield. Madonna is crown rust resistance and has excellent palatability with ‘soft leaf’, high sugar, and high starch content. Madonna is widely adaptable for grazing, green chop, hay, inter-seeding, and as a cover crop. It is tolerable of heat and any available soil moisture will limit productivity in arid regions and during periods of drought stress.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 190,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 30-40 (broadcast), 15-22 (drilled)

Rapeseed/Canola

Besides their use as an oil crop, rapeseed, Brassica napus, and other varieties of this species are also used for forage. If pest suppression is an objective, rapeseed should be used rather than canola since the breakdown products of glucosinolates are thought to be a principal mechanism for pest control with these cover crops. Rapeseed has been shown to have biological activity against plant parasitic nematodes as well as weeds. Due to its rapid fall growth, rapeseed captures high amounts of residual nitrogen and accumulates significant amounts of above ground biomass. Common forage varieties include Hobson and Napoleon.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 157,000; Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-10